The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement) [3] is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015. [4] [5] Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left. [1] Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. It is important, in the signed agreements, to be very detailed about what is allowed and what is not, and not to be entirely dependent on the common law. If an agreement is illegal, it is unenforceable. If an agreement is too broad, the contract can also be permanently cancelled. Since uncertainty of any agreement is possible, only then will you be able to understand whether an agreement is applicable or not after a court. Since November 2020, 194 states and the European Union have signed the agreement. 187 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified the agreement or have joined the agreement, including China and India, the countries with the first and third largest CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members. [1] [77] [78] As of November 2020[update], the United States, Iran and Turkey are the only countries with more than 1% not to be contracting parties. A written agreement signed by two or more parties is a binding agreement, but it is enforceable until it becomes a court judgment.

The court renders a judgment by inserting the content of the agreement into its judgment. This decision replaces the original agreement and is applied by the court if one of the parties contradicts it. Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an “Annex 1” country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases. [91] The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by:[11], how each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be maintained in line continuously (by the climate action monitor[95] and climate change). When the agreement was signed, Fay├žal kissed Nasser and kissed him on both cheeks. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon,[67] criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments. [98] He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming. [98] Countries are also working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible.