After the signing of the framework agreement, the commander of the 9th District of the USCG expressed these ideas on his USCG blog: “We have great respect for the work and professionalism of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and this agreement establishes the authority of the USCG to work with them to improve our ability to protect the Great Lakes.” Shiprider Framework Agreement On May 27, 2009, Canadian Public Safety Minister Peter Van Loan and U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano signed a major shiprider agreement in Detroit, Michigan, officially known as the “Integrated Cross-Border Maritime Operations Framework Agreement between the U.S. Government and the Government of Canada.” The agreement aims to “provide the parties with additional means in common waterways to prevent, detect, repress, investigate and prosecute offences or offences, including, but not limited to, illicit drug trafficking, migrant trafficking, trafficking in firearms, smuggling of counterfeit goods and money and terrorism.” May 26, 2009 – Canadian Public Safety Minister Peter Van Loan and Homeland Security Minister Janet Napolitano sign the Shiprider Agreement in Detroit. In May 2009, Public Safety Minister Peter Van Loan and U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano signed the Shiprider Agreement in Canadian waters, where Canadian laws are in effect, overseen by the RCMP boarding officer. In U.S. waters, the USCG officer monitors U.S. laws. According to the RCMP and the USCG, this regulation removed the international maritime border as a barrier to police work and created a power multiplier. Teams of ship pilots would have been able to patrol the border waters of both countries with fewer vessels than when operating separately. We would like to thank the Akwesaronon, who took the time to talk to us, to patiently explain the history of the Kanien`keh`ka and Kaniatarowano`on: we to explain the persistent concerns about the sovereignty and controversial jurisdictions of Akwesasne. We are also grateful to the members of the USCG, CBP and RCMP who graciously agreed to contribute to this research and who spent many hours answering our questions about Shiprider`s implementation and maritime application.

This study has benefited enormously from Nathan Prier`s research assistance and expertise, as well as thoughtful comments and helpful suggestions from anonymous critics. We would like to point out that mistakes and misunderstandings are ours. This research was supported by the Canadian Council on Science and humanities. “The Government of Canada has made the safety of our people and the safety of our streets and communities a priority,” said Minister Nicholson. “Together, Canadian and U.S. efforts contribute to our shared roads being closed to criminal organizations and their activities, but open to legitimate travel and commerce.” In July 2007, 25 officers from each country participated in a two-week joint training session at the USCG Maritime Law Enforcement Academy in Charleston, South Carolina. A special program developed by RCMP, USCG and US-ICE was used and officers participated in courses and participated in practical exercises. The professional interaction allowed Canadian and U.S.

officers to compare their respective authorities, tactics, techniques and procedures and to develop confidence in preparing for combined operations on the water.